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High Court of Andhra Pradesh

High Court of Andhra Pradesh

The High Court of Andhra Pradesh, the capital of the state of this name in the overall nation of India, can be dated back to 1954 in the period soon after the country became independent from the British Empire and assumed its current form. As such, the AP High Court, as it may also be referred, is based out of the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh, the city of Hyderabad. The High Court of Andhra Pradesh gains its legislative foundation from the source of the Andhra State Act, a package of legislation which was entered into law in 1953. 
 
 
In terms of the larger history of the AP High Court as an institution, it can be traced back to the decision in the early period of Indian independence to effect a fusion between the areas previously referred to as the Madras Presidency and the state of Hyderabad. The bench of the High Court of Andhra Pradesh can be staffed with up to 39 judges. As of 2010, it had 31 justices appointed to the court.
 
 
Once appointed to the seat, the AP High Court can maintain their membership until they are 65 years old. At present, the High Court of Andhra Pradesh is presided over by Chief Justice Nisar Ahmad Kakru. In addition to its judicial functions, the AP High COurt is noted for the building in which it is housed, a palace built by a prince of the state of Hyperabad on the River Musi’s south bank. 

Gujarat High Court

Gujarat High Court

The legal institution of the Gujarat High Court is a presiding court within the overall nation of India, as is specifically tasked with providing judicial functions to the Indian state of Gujarat. The founding of the Gujarat High Court can be traced back to 1960 and attributed to the passage of the legislative package of the Bombay Re-organization Act as was effected in that same year. The specific purpose of the Gujarat High Court, at that time when it was created, was to provide for the legal needs of that area when it became separate from the region which had previously enveloped it, the state of Bombay. 
 
 
The membership of the judges on the bench of the Gujarat High Court is allowed to go up to 42 individual office holders, though as of the 2010 period for the Indian judicial institution, the Gujarat High Court only had 24 individual judges currently sitting on it. In that same period, the presiding Chief Justice of the Gujarat High Court was Sudhansu Jyoti Mukhopadhyaya. The term of this chief justice can be traced back to December 2009, when he was appointed to fill this office of oversight.
 
 
The physical facilities for the Gujarat High Court are based out of Ahmedabad, and the Gujarat High Court is also placed in the larger category of legal institutions reserved for those which are considered the High Courts of India. Various matters related to the Gujarat High Court, including employment openings and rules to be followed, can be referred to on the Gujarat High Court website. 

Easy Outline of International Court of Justice

Easy Outline of International Court of Justice

European Court of Human Rights
 
 
The European Court of Human Rights is an organization of the European Convention on Human Rights and is not based out the European Union, but rather the Council of Europe. The European Court of Human Rights was first set up in its current form in 1998, after amendments had been passed to the organization previously known under the same name. In its present form, as of 2010 the European Court of Human Rights had been credited with accepting 5,968 cases. 
 
 
European Court of Justice
 
 
Membership in the European Court of Justice is based on membership in the wider organization of the European Union. As of 2010, this framework between different nations had 27 individual nation-states and the bench of the European Court of Justice has 27 judges, each acting as a representative of her or his home country and under the supervision of President Vassilios Skouras since his appointment in 2003, usually appearing in 3, 5, or 13-member panels.
 
 
Supreme Court of India
 
 
The Supreme Court of India functions according to Chapter IV of Part V of the Constitution of India. Based out of the New Delhi High Court, this judicial decision-making body functions as the final appeals court for the overall judicial system of the country, and as such, is headed by the Chief Justice of India. The membership of the bench of the Supreme Court of India has increased in number over its sixty year-long existence incrementally to 31. 
 
 
Allahabad High Court
 
 
The highest legal authority for the Indian state of Utter Pradesh is vested in the Allahabad High Court. This court is based out of the city of Allahabad and may also be referred to as the High Court of Judicature. The Allahabad High Court was established soon after the country became independent from the British Empire in 1950. With a capacity for 160 justices, it is the largest Indian court. 
 
 
High Court of Andhra Pradesh
 
 
The High Court of Andhra Padesh (AP) was created in 1954. The AP High Court, named as such for the city out of which it is based, provides for oversight over the state-wide judicial system of Hyderabad. The Andhra State Act provides the legal basis for the functions of the High Court of Andhra Padesh. The capacity of the AP High Court is for 39 members, of which it currently has 31. 
 
 
Rajasthan High Court
 
 
The Rajasthan High Court was brought into existence in 1949 by the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, and as such, is based out of the city of Jodhpur with the ability to thus render legal services for the rest of the state. As of 2009, the presiding Chief Justice over the Rajasthan state judicial system has been Judge Jagadish Bhalla, who also presides over 29 currently appointed judges, of a potential 40. 
 
 
Punjab and Haryanan High Court
 
 
The Indian states of Punjab and Haryana are joined administratively in a number of ways, including sharing the appointed judicial administration of the Punjab and Haryana High Court. In 2010, the Punjab and Haryana High Court had 47 judges, out of its total capacity for 68 judges sitting on the court’s bench. The Punjab and Haryana High Court was created in 1966, as part of the overall process of joining the two states. 
 
 
Gujarat High Court
 
 
The Gujarat High Court as a judicial institution presides over the Indian state of this name and has done so since its establishment in 1960 through the passage of the Bombay Re-organization Act through the legislature. The Gujarat High Court accordingly provides for an area which at one point was placed within the larger context of Bombay, through the efforts of 24 judges who are sitting on the bench as of 2010.
 
 
Consumer Court
 
 
The Consumer Court as an aspect of judicial practice appears in the legal system of India. A place is provided for it in this judicial infrastructure through the provisions of the 1986 Consumer Protection Act. A nationally applicable Consumer Court is supported by state- and district-level Consumer Courts where citizens may bring complaints against businesses. 

Your Guide to the International Court

Your Guide to the International Court

The International Court of Justice is a legal institution which functions as the central international court setting of the United Nations. Like the International Criminal Court, with which it should not be confused, the International Court of Justice is based out of The Hague. Fifteen justices in all sit on the bench at the International Court of Justice, holding terms which last for up to periods of 9 years.
 
 
The International Court as such has been set up to hold judicial proceedings on cases which occur between the governments of different nation-states and would thus have increased difficulty in securing impartial adjudication from the offices of state-specific courts. In all, 192 different countries have consented to being placed under International Court jurisdiction. The United States is a notable non-participant in International Court jurisdiction. 
 
 
One way in which the International Court can be distinguished from its nearby counterpart of the International Criminal Court is in terms of how long it has existed, which in the case of this institution dates back to the early United Nations, and in the case of the other to being as recent as a point in the early 2000s.
 
 
The membership of the International Court bench of judges is decided upon by the UN General Assembly and Security Council, who are empowered to work off of the list of nominees submitted by the Permanent Court of Arbitration. If an International Court of Justice judge dies before the expiration of his or her term, procedure typically dictates the replacement of that justice with another from the same country. 

Punjab and Haryana High Court

Punjab and Haryana High Court

The Punjab and Haryana High Court is a joint legal institution which provides for the legal and judicial needs of the Indian states both of Punjab and Haryana. This court is based out of the city of Chandigarh, which similarly serves for the capital for the two states.
 
 
Under law, the number of justices serving on the Punjab and Haryana High Court can consist of 68 people. In particular, the Punjab and Haryana High Court membership comprises of, in addition to the presiding Chief Justice, 36 Permanent members of this position and 21 so-called “Additional Judges.” 
 
 
An April 2010 report on the Punjab and Haryana High Court found, however, that the court at present had only up to 47 currently sitting members. For the same period, the Punjab and Haryana High Court Chief Justice position had been granted to Mukul Mudgal, which was made effective in 2009, in a term due to expire as soon as 2011.
 
 
The Punjab and Haryana High Court dates back to 1966. Its creation was the result of large changes within the organization of the Punjab and Haryana states. In addition to the legal functions filled by the Punjab and Haryana High Court, this legal institution is also noted as being based out of a celebrated piece of architecture. 
 
 
The separate courts which were later merged into the single organization of the Punjab and Haryana High Court were initially created in this form in the period immediately following the securing from India of independence from the British Empire.

European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights is a legal institution created through the power of the European Convention on Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights can provide for complaints brought by residents, citizens, or any people otherwise involved with a country which is signatory to the aforementioned Convention, which extends to members of the international Council of Europe body.
 
 
Despite the wide-ranging title, the European Court of Human Rights should not be confused with the administrative boundaries or powers of the European Union, which is not as widely applicable as the enforcement powers of the European Court of Human Rights.
 
 
The European Court of Human Rights has been open as a forum for hearing human rights concerns since it first went into effect in 1998. In this regard, the European Court of Human Rights was brought about as a replacement for other organizations which had previously held roughly overlapping judicial functions, as can be noted to include the 1954-instituted European Commission of Human Rights. 
 
 
While a body known as the European Court of Human Rights had previously been in effect for carrying out these same functions in Europe, its organization was changed through the adoption of the Protocol 11 Amendment.
 
 
Up to 2010 from the period of its initial founding, the European Court of Human Rights was observed to have answered 5,968 individual complaints arising over human rights issues. Ratification of the European Court of Human Rights Treaty is compulsory for membership in the Council of Europe. Forty-seven judges administer the European Court of Human Rights.

European Court of Justice

European Court of Justice

The European Court of Human Rights is a legal institution created through the power of the European Convention on Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights can provide for complaints brought by residents, citizens, or any people otherwise involved with a country which is signatory to the aforementioned Convention, which extends to members of the international Council of Europe body.
 
 
Despite the wide-ranging title, the European Court of Human Rights should not be confused with the administrative boundaries or powers of the European Union, which is not as widely applicable as the enforcement powers of the European Court of Human Rights.
 
 
The European Court of Human Rights has been open as a forum for hearing human rights concerns since it first went into effect in 1998. In this regard, the European Court of Human Rights was brought about as a replacement for other organizations which had previously held roughly overlapping judicial functions, as can be noted to include the 1954-instituted European Commission of Human Rights. 
 
 
While a body known as the European Court of Human Rights had previously been in effect for carrying out these same functions in Europe, its organization was changed through the adoption of the Protocol 11 Amendment.
 
 
Up to 2010 from the period of its initial founding, the European Court of Human Rights was observed to have answered 5,968 individual complaints arising over human rights issues. Ratification of the European Court of Human Rights Treaty is compulsory for membership in the Council of Europe. Forty-seven judges administer the European Court of Human Rights.

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court

 

The International Criminal Court is a tribunal which has been created for the purpose of applying international law to such offenses as genocide and crimes against humanity, and as such, is intended to provide for the two causes of human rights and humanitarian law. This institution has been considered to be the central criminal court setting for dealing with these matters since it was created and went into effect at the beginning of July in 2002.

The International Criminal Court was created in this way by the Treaty of the Roman Statute of the International Criminal Court. The International Criminal Court is associated with The Hague, as this is the primary, though not exclusive, location for central criminal court proceedings for war crimes and other offenses. You will need to find special kinds of criminal lawyer to represent you in the International Criminal Court.

Among the various central criminal court proceedings which have been instituted in this period, the International Criminal Court has launched processes dealing with offenses in the five locations of Kenya, Sudan, the Congo, Uganda, and the Central African Republic. Moreover, the International Criminal Court has been noted as issuing 16 indictments during the period of its existence.

In all, the International Criminal Court includes the participation of 111 different countries and the membership of 18 judges. This central criminal court is not to be confused with the similarly named International Court of Justice. International Court of Justice offices can also be found in The Hague. International Court of Justice functions extend more to conflict resolution than for prosecuting misdeeds committed in the course of conflict. 

Supreme Court of India

Supreme Court of India

As provided for through the country’s Constitution, Part V, Chapter IV, the Supreme Court of India functions as the highest legal authority in the land. In this way, the New Delhi High Court, which is the specific location of the Supreme Court of India, is the last recourse through which plaintiffs and defendants involved in the nation’s legal system can file an appeal against rulings issued by lower courts. In addition, the Supreme Court of India is conceived of as the defender of the sanctity of that country’s Constitution. 
 
 
The New Delhi High Court is comprised of the Chief Justice of India along with up to 30 additional judges. Appointments to the bench of the Supreme Court of India are made on a presidential basis, but with the participation of the existing make-up of the Supreme Court. In general, the Chief Justice of India and the other possible New Delhi High Court positions are intended to be filled according to the experience which is possessed by the prospective officeholder and not on the basis of political expediency. 
 
 
The Supreme Court of India was conceived in the initial 1950-issued Indian Constitution, as a body made up of just eight justices, including Chief Justice of India, as well as seven other subordinate judges. The process of increasing the permissible number of justices to be accepted onto the bench of the Supreme Court of India has occurred on a gradual basis, with the most recent revision having occurred in 2008. As of 2010, the Chief Justice of India has been S.H. Kapadia.

Allahabad High Court

Allahabad High Court

The Allahabad High Court is a source of judicial authority also referred to as the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad. The Allahabad High Court is based out of and provides for the legal needs of Uttar Pradesh, a state of India.
 
 
In the history of the country as a whole, the Allahabad High Court is noted as being one of the earliest high courts to have been founded in the wake of India’s independence from the British Empire. As such, the Allahabad High Court has existed since 1950. Moreover, the membership of the bench of the Allahabad High Court can consist of up to 160 judges, which represents the greatest possible size for an Indian court. 
 
 
In terms of the history of the institution of the Allahabad High Court, this body of judges can be dated back to a predecessor court which existed under the British Regime, which was created in 1866. The most recent change enacted to the powers of the Allahabad High Court was a slight loss of jurisdiction, when a section of the state of Uttar Pradesh was converted into a new state of its own, that of Uttaranchal.
 
 
As of 2010, Chief Justice Ferdino Inacio Rebello had been appointed to administer the Allahabad High Court, a post which he took possession of in June of that year. The Allahabad High Court is based out of the primary location of the city of that name, but also maintains offices in the state capital of Lucknow. 

Consumer Court Overview

Consumer Court Overview

The legal institution of the Rajasthan High Court serves the judicial functions for the state of this name as is located in the nation of India. In this regard, the court of Rajasthan state can be traced back to the 1949 passage of the legislative package of the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, in the wake of the nation securing its independence from the authority which had previously been exercised over it by the British Empire. 
As such, the court provides these legal services from the city of Jodhpur and is allowed to be filled with up to 40 appointed justices. As of the 2010 period for the Rajasthan High Court, the actual composition of the judicial institution was comprised of 29 sitting justices. 
In August 2009, Justice Jagadish Bhalla was appointed to serve as Chief Justice of the Rajasthan High Court. The first judge to fill this position was Kamala Kant Verma. The overall justice system of the state of Rajasthan, as comprises the territory over which Rajasthan High Court has authority, is comprised of 33 individual Judgeships, including District and Session-level justices. 
Moreover, the state of Rajasthan also includes 108 “Additional Judges” at the District and Session level, who are likewise placed under the supervision of the Rajasthan High Court.
In addition to the main offices of the Rajasthan High Court at Jodhpur, the state of Rajasthan is also served in its judicial needs by additional High Court offices based out of the city of Jaipur and have been since 1977. 

Supreme Court of The Philippines

Supreme Court of The Philippines

The judicial body comprised of the Supreme Court of the Philippines holds the powers of general legal oversight over the nation of the Philippines. In this regard, appeals filed against legal decisions previously made in any other court in the nation can last be appealed against in the setting of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, after which the complainant will have no more recourse to appellate sources of authority. The location of the Supreme Court of the Philippines can be found in Manila, specifically in buildings placed near the Philippines General Hospital. 
 
 
In historical terms, the Supreme Court of the Philippines can be traced back as an institution to 1901, in the beginning of the period during which the country was under American rule. In the early period of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which scholars on the subject consider to have lasted from 1901 to 1935, most of the membership of the bench was reserved for American judges, with the exception of the seat of Chief Justice, which was invariably filled by a Filipino judge.
 
 
The composition and functions of the Supreme Court of the Philippines changed somewhat in accordance with the overall shift of the nation toward independence. In this regard, 1973 reforms saw the Supreme Court of the Philippines attaining a somewhat larger membership, which was expanded to a permissible 15 judges who could sit on the bench, as well as wider powers over the country’s judicial system, as had previously been vested with the Justice Department. 

Understanding the Courts of Jamaica

Understanding the Courts of Jamaica

The courts of Jamaica are modeled as an overall judicial system after the United Kingdom judiciary. As such, courts of Jamaica can be created on one of four possible levels of administrative and judicial power. As reflects the nation’s continuing political ties to its one-time colonial occupier of the United Kingdom, none of the courts of Jamaica can be said to constitute a court “of final appeal,” as further complaints can be brought to the attention of the London-based Privy Council. Further reflecting the English heritage of the nation’s political and legal system, the courts of Jamaica are based on the common, as opposed to civil, approach to the law. 
 
 
One difference between the courts of Jamaica and other judicial systems around the world is that the nation’s Supreme Court has been entrusted with the unusual ability to originate legal processes, as opposed to serving as a court of highest appeal, as is frequently the case in judicial systems around the world. Courts of Jamaica can be placed under the Supreme Court and accordingly into such former sub-categories as the Circuit Court, which provides for criminal offenses, as well as the Revenue, Family, Commercial, and Gun Courts of Jamaica.
 
 
Moreover, Constitutional questions related to the courts of Jamaica can also be taken on by the Supreme Court of the country. In addition, courts of Jamaica can also be placed at the parish level, and in that regard will be identified as Resident Magistrate’s Courts, as can provide for various minor offenses. 

High Court of Karnataka

High Court of Karnataka

The legal institution of the High Court of Karnataka provides oversight for the judicial functions which occur in this state in the overall nation of India. In this regard, the Karnataka High Court maintains facilities and hears cases in the state of Karnatake’s capital, the city of Bangalore.
 
 
The title of Karnataka High Court dates back to just 1973, though the history of the overall institution of the High Court of Karnataka can be dated back as far as to 1884. At that point, the Karnataka High Court, at that time known as the Chief Court of Mysore, was under the administrative and governmental control of the British Empire.
 
 
In its present state, which began with India’s move into independence in the post-World War II era, the Karnataka High Court can be noted for a current maximum membership of 40 individual judges who are allowed to sit on the bench. 
 
 
The High Court of Karnataka is noted for, in addition to the legal functions which it furnishes to the state and the residents of Karnataka, acting as a stepping stone in the careers of notable Indian justices with over a dozen former members of this legal institution going on to the Indian Supreme Court.
 
 
As of August 2010, the appointed Chief Justice to the High Court of Karnataka was Jagdish Singh Khehar. Despite the full number of justices allowed on to the bench of the Karnataka High Court, in the same period as Khehar’s tenure this legal institution had just 23 other judges. 

Res Judicata

Writ of Mandamus

Prosecutors

Alibi

Arbitrary

Esquire

Caveat